Relations

Plain source file: base/Modules/Relations.lhs (2009-01-04)

Relations is imported by: AST4ModSys, CheckModules, ModSysAST, Modules, PPModules, WorkModule, ScopeModule, PFE2, PFE3, PFE4, PFE_StdNames, Pfe2Cmds, Pfe4Cmds, PfeDepCmds, ToQC.

> module Relations where
>
> import Sets



Relations

\label{sec-relations}

In this section, we present a number of operators for manipulating relations. To represent relations we use the Set library provided with the GHC and Hugs Haskell implementations. However, the specification in this paper uses only the operators defined here, so any other representation would do as well.

> type Rel a b = Set (a,b)



Next we describe a number of simple operations on relations. Most of them require the elements to be in the class Ord. This is due to the implementation of the Set library. A different representation may relax or strengthen these requirements.

The operations listToRel and relToList allow us to switch between relations represented as sets, and relations represented as association lists.

> listToRel :: (Ord a,Ord b) => [(a,b)] -> Rel a b
> listToRel xs = mkSet xs

> relToList :: Rel a b -> [(a,b)]
> relToList r = setToList r



The empty relation is emptyRel. It does not relate any elements at all.

> emptyRel :: Rel a b
> emptyRel = emptySet



The combinators restrictDom and restrictRng restrict the domain and range, respectively, of a relation r, to the elements satisfying a predicate p.

> restrictDom :: (Ord a, Ord b) =>
>   (a -> Bool) -> Rel a b -> Rel a b
> restrictDom p r = listToRel [(x,y) | (x,y) <- relToList r, p x]

> restrictRng :: (Ord a, Ord b) =>
>   (b -> Bool) -> Rel a b -> Rel a b
> restrictRng p r = listToRel [(x,y) | (x,y) <- relToList r, p y]



To access the domain and range of a relation, we use the functions dom and rng, respectively.

> --dom :: Ord a => Rel a b -> Set a
> dom r = mapSet fst r

> --rng :: Ord b => Rel a b -> Set b
> rng r = mapSet snd r



Sometimes it is useful to apply a function to all elements in the domain or range of a relation. This is the task of mapDom and mapRng, respectively.

> --mapDom :: (Ord b, Ord x) =>
> --  (a -> x) -> Rel a b -> Rel x b
> mapDom f = mapSet (\(x,y) -> (f x, y))

> --mapRng :: (Ord a, Ord x) =>
> --  (b -> x) -> Rel a b -> Rel a x
> mapRng f = mapSet (\(x,y) -> (x, f y))



We also need to be able to compute the intersection and union of relations. Elements are related by the intersection of two relations, if they are related by both relations. They are related by the union of two relations, if they are related by either one of them.

> intersectRel :: (Ord a, Ord b) =>
>   Rel a b -> Rel a b -> Rel a b
> r intersectRel s = r intersect s

> unionRels :: (Ord a, Ord b) => [Rel a b] -> Rel a b
> unionRels rs = unionManySets rs



The function minusRel computes the complement of a relation with respect to another relation. The new relation relates all those elements that are related by r, but not by s.

> minusRel :: (Ord a, Ord b) =>
>   Rel a b -> Rel a b -> Rel a b
> r minusRel s = r minusSet s



Given a predicate p over the domain of a relation r, partitionDom produces two new relations: the first one is the subset of r whose first component satisfies p, and the second is the rest of r.

> partitionDom :: (Ord a, Ord b) =>
>   (a -> Bool) -> Rel a b -> (Rel a b, Rel a b)
> partitionDom p r = (restrictDom p r, restrictDom (not . p) r)



%\begin{ex} %If r = [(1,'a'),(2,'a'),(3,'b')], \newline %then partitionDom (== 2) r = ([(2,'a')],[(1,'a'),(3,'b')]). %\end{ex}

So far we have been thinking of relations as sets of pairs. An alternative view is to think of them as functions, which given an element of the domain, return all related elements in the range. The function applyRel converts a relation to a function form.

> applyRel :: (Ord a, Ord b) => Rel a b -> a -> [b]
> --applyRel r a = setToList (rng (restrictDom (== a) r))
> --applyRel r a = [b|(a',b)&lt;-setToList r,a'==a] -- not faster...
> applyRel r = lookupWithDefaultFM fm []
>   where fm = addListToFM_C (++) emptyFM [(a,[b])|(a,b)<-setToList r]



Finally we define the operation unionMapSet, which is the bind'' operator of the set monad. It is not an operation on relations, but rather on arbitrary sets. It is missing from the Set library, so we define it here.

> unionMapSet :: Ord b => (a -> Set b) -> (Set a -> Set b)
> unionMapSet f = unionManySets . map f . setToList

Index

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